Listing and Contrast: 하고, (이)랑, 와/과 and -고
Making long lists is something we all do. How often do you find yourself endlessly adding more information using that humble word “and”. In Korean there is a lot to be said about that humble word as there are not one, not two, but three ways to say it. There is a group of three particles that can mean “and”: 하고, (이)랑 and 와/과. However, there is also the verb ending -고. Plus the connective adverb 그리고. Both also mean “and”. Let’s go check it out.
Like the the Korean ‘or’, the Korean ‘and’ comes in various forms depending what you want to list. The first variation I want to discuss is the one for nouns. This variant is a particle like 이(나). However, unlike that one there are 3 variations: 하고, (이)랑 or 와/과. All of these three have the same meaning, but they have a slight difference in use.
와/과 is used primarily in writing and formal language. Whereas 하고 and (이)랑 are more often used in everyday speech, where women have a slight preference for using (이)랑.
The first meaning of these particles is as mentioned ‘and’. When a noun uses this particle, all other particles ordinarily used for the noun due to its grammatical function is omitted. Furthermore even the last noun of a list can still use 하고 or (이)랑 when these particles are used. That, however, is not possible with 와/과. Also note that consistent use of the particle is important. Once you use one of the three in a sentence, you keep using that one in the same sentence. You cannot mix them in the same sentence.
하고, (이)랑 or 와/과 As With
Furthermore these particles can also indicate something or someone is doing an action together with the function. In this case the meaning of the particle is not ‘and’, but ‘(together) with’. However, when these particles are used in such a way, they are oftentimes followed by the adverbs 같이 or 함께.
Verb and Adjective And
Like the Korean ‘or’, there is also a Korean ‘and’ that is a verb ending. That verb ending is -고. It is a very simple verb ending used when you want to list more than one action or states of an subject. This verb ending doesn’t have any Korean irregular verb acting up so you simply need the verb stem and attach -고 to it. It is possible to express tense in both clauses when -고 is used as such
However, this verb ending can also be used as a time expression very similar to the verb ending -고 나서. When used as such, the verb ending is still translated as ‘and’, but instead of listing actions or states of the subject, it instead expresses the action of the first clause was performed before the action of the second clause. In this use of -고 the tense is only expressed in the second clause, not the first.
The last version of the Korean ‘and’ is the connective adverb. Connective adverbs let you make lists of various things without using either the noun or verb variants to do so. The connective adverb to do this is 그리고 and it is often used at the start of a sentence. However, it can also be used mid sentence.