The last particle I want to discuss for now is the particle -마다. Like the particle -쯤 or -만, this particle has a more meaningful focus rather than a grammatical focus. Like the previous such particles, using this particle isn’t too difficult, but it does have its peculiarities that you need to be aware of.
The particle -마다 has two distinct uses that in English look very similar. The first use is reserved for nouns that express time such as day (날), hour (시), … When you use those words with thi particle it indicates a repetition occuring every so often, the frequency being expressed by the noun with the particle -마다. When it expresses frequency, you translate it as ‘every’ or ‘once every’. Let’s take a look at an example:
Sentence: 오 분마다 지하철이 와요.
Translation: The subway train comes every five minutes.
The second use of the particle -마다 is to indicate you talk about every single thing of what the word that has the particle attached of it. You are talking about them all, no exceptions. Therefore, you translate this use as ‘every’ or ‘all’. Let’s take a look at an example:
Sentence: 고양이마다 귀여워요 .
Translation: All cats are cute.
How To Use
Using the particles -마다 is rather easy. Like all particles you need to attach it to the word that you want to use it with. The noun you attach it to is the thing you are comparing with the subject. With this particle you needn’t worry over things such as batchim, no batchim.
However, there are some peculiarities you have to keep in mind. The first important peculiarity you need to keep in your mind is that not all nouns use this particle. The mst important words that do not use the particle -마다 are: 년, 월, 주 and 일. These Sino-Korean words have another well known form that is used instead: 매년, 매월, 매주 and 매일. If you really want to use the particle to say these things,you will have to use their native Korean counterparts such as 해 (year), 날 (day) or 달 (month).
A second peculiar case is when you want to use the particle -마다 with the word 집. When you do so, the correct way is not 집마다, but instead it is is 집집마다. It is simply something you’ll need to memorize.