Quotation: Indirect Quotation, Contracted Form
Today I decided to wrap something up I neglected for a long time quotation in Korean. As you perhaps know I already discussed direct quotation and indirect quotation. Yet there is still another form of quotation in the Korean language. It is a contracted form of the indirect quotation. Like the regular indirect quotation, the contracted form has a lot of variations you will need to get used to.
The contracted form of indirect quotations is not very different from its non contracted. The only difference is when you can use it. The long form of indirect quotation you can use both in writing and in speech. The contracted form on the other hand you use in colloquial speech only, meaning when you talk to people you have a certain closeness to. Like its longer brother, this type of quotation is often an interpretation by the speaker of what someone else said. In Korean the indirect quotation contracted form is equally complicated as its longer brother. It consists of multiple patterns depending the sentence type.
Keep in mind that the contracted forms are used in speech. Therefore it is far more important you know how to pronounce and use them properly than knowing how to write them. You will see this form in writing in media such as webcomics.
So let’s get started on exploring the many forms that make up the indirect quotation, contracted form.
Indirect Quotation, Contracted Form: Declarative Sentences
The first sentence pattern we will go over are various forms the contracted form has for declarative sentences. For those unaware what a declarative sentence is, it is the a sentence to declare something. You are simply sharing information with someone such as facts. When you use this sentence pattern in indirect quotation contracted from, you’ll also need to look at the tense because the pattern changes depending the tense.
The present tense, however, brings even more complexity. This is due to the fact that it is also important to know what the type of verb is, you are using. This also determines the form here.
- Verbs: For action verbs this pattern is used: Verb stem + -(느)ㄴ대요.
- Adjectives: Adjective use this pattern: Adjective verb stem + -대요.
- Nouns (이다): Nouns use this pattern: Noun + -(이)래요.
These patterns follow the batchim/no batchim rule, so keep the irregular verbs in mind.
Luckily for us only the present tense is so complicated. In the past tense you needn’t worry over verb types. In the past tense all you need to know is the ending: -었/았/했/였대요. The pattern as you can see follows the 아/어/해 conjugation rule. One you should be all too familiar with by now.
Like the past tense, the future tense declarative indirect quotation does not care about the type of verb used in the quotation. The pattern for the future tense is: -(으)ㄹ 거래요. This pattern adheres to the batchim/no batchim rule. However, keep the ㄹ irregular verbs in mind.
Indirect Quotation, Contracted Form: Interrogative Sentences
For indirect quotation, contracted form, of interrogative sentences, it is once again important to know what kind of verb you use in the your quotation. The form changes depending the verb type.
- Verbs: For verbs this pattern the pattern you use, is: Verb stem + -냬요.
- Adjectives: For adjectives the pattern you use, is: Verb stem + -(으)냬요.*
- Nouns (이다): Nouns use this pattern: Noun + -(이)냬요.*
However, like the declarative sentences, the forms change slightly depending the tense. This change is similar as seen when talking about the declarative sentence, but this time –냬요 serves as the base form, becoming -었/았/했/였냬요 for past tense and -(으)ㄹ 거냬요 for the future tense.
*This pattern follows the batchim/no batchim rule.
Indirect Quotation, Contracted Form: Suggestive Sentences
The indirect quotation of suggestive sentences is perhaps the easiest indirect quotation, contracted form, among all these patterns. One reason is, you only use this pattern with verbs which, of course, limits the complexity naturally. However, the ending itself you simply need to attach to the verb stem. You needn’t worry over batchim or no batchim or such things.
Indirect Quotation, Contracted Form: Imperative Sentences
Lastly there are imperative sentences. To indirectly quote imperative sentences there are two major patterns you can use. The first pattern is the general imperative sentence, which is: -(으)래요. This pattern adheres to the batchim/no batchim rule, but keep the ㄹ irregular verbs in mind.
The second major patterns you can divide in two different forms. They are more specific patterns in their use. This group is the indirect quotation, contracted form of an imperative sentence that uses the -어/아 주다 form or when the verb 주다 is used in its 주세요 imperative form. As mentioned there are two variations for this kind of quotation:
First, there is –어/아/해/여 달래요. You use this pattern when the recipient of what you quoted, is also the person, who you quoted.
However, when the quoted speaker is making a request for someone else you use a different form. This form is –어/아/해/여 주래요.