Time Expression: 후에
Since I have plenty of time while I wait for my spicy dwaejigalibijjim (매운 돼지갈비찜) to be done cooking, I thought I would use that time to write about 후에, the antonym of 전에. The rules on how to use 후에 are pretty similar to its antonym with a slight difference. The main difficulty comes from certain semantic differences you need to keep in mind.
Action And Time
Like its antonym 전에, 후에’s main challenge comes not from any grammatical rules, but mainly from a semantic challenge you will have to deal with. 후에 can be used with both nouns and verbs, but the nouns you can use are limited to only nouns that represent time or action. Action nouns are generally nouns you use along with 하다 to form verbs such as 운동 or 쇼핑. However, unlike 전에 you use verbs not with their -기 noun form, you will use a different form of which we’ll share the rules below.
When dealing with time nouns you will have the exactly same semantic challenge as I have already explained for 전에. I strongly recommend reading that part as it also applies to 후에. The message is you need to keep in mind the semantic differences between words such as 시 and 시간. Those will have stark difference in meaning when used with either 후에 or 전에
How to Use
Like its antonym, the 후에 part of the sentence is at the front of the sentence. You then follow it up with what happened after that time or action. As such this you can translate this grammar pattern simply as ‘after’. When you want to use nouns with 후에, things are pretty easy. You just put the noun in front of it and you are done. It is pretty easy.
However, things get a bit more complicated when you want to use verbs such as 먹다. When you want to use verbs with it, you’ll have slightly modify them. When the verb stem ends in a consonant, you need to attach the ending -은 to that verb stem. However, if the verb stem ends in a vowel, you simply add -ㄴ. After that you put it in front of 후 and you are done. Still pretty easy, isn’t it?
Furthermore you can use 다음에 instead. The same rules still apply, but the meaning remains unchanged.
With all that information you now know how to use 후에.